Source code for

# Licensed under a 3-clause BSD style license - see LICENSE.rst
Utilities for reading or working with Camera geometry files
import logging
import warnings
from copy import deepcopy
from enum import Enum, unique

import numpy as np
from astropy import units as u
from astropy.coordinates import Angle, BaseCoordinateFrame, SkyCoord
from astropy.table import Table
from astropy.utils import lazyproperty
from scipy.sparse import csr_matrix, lil_matrix
from scipy.spatial import cKDTree

from ctapipe.coordinates import CameraFrame
from ctapipe.utils import get_table_dataset
from ctapipe.utils.linalg import rotation_matrix_2d

from .image_conversion import (

__all__ = ["CameraGeometry", "UnknownPixelShapeWarning", "PixelShape"]

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

def _distance(x1, y1, x2, y2):
    return np.sqrt((x1 - x2) ** 2 + (y1 - y2) ** 2)

[docs]@unique class PixelShape(Enum): """Supported Pixel Shapes Enum""" CIRCLE = "circle" SQUARE = "square" HEXAGON = "hexagon"
[docs] @classmethod def from_string(cls, name): """ Convert a string represenation to the enum value This function supports abbreviations and for backwards compatibility "rect" as alias for "square". """ name = name.lower() if name.startswith("hex"): return cls.HEXAGON if name.startswith("rect") or name == "square": return cls.SQUARE if name.startswith("circ"): return cls.CIRCLE raise TypeError(f"Unknown pixel shape {name}")
#: mapper from simtel pixel shape integers to our shape and rotation angle SIMTEL_PIXEL_SHAPES = { 0: (PixelShape.CIRCLE, Angle(0, u.deg)), 1: (PixelShape.HEXAGON, Angle(0, u.deg)), 2: (PixelShape.SQUARE, Angle(0, u.deg)), 3: (PixelShape.HEXAGON, Angle(30, u.deg)), }
[docs]class CameraGeometry: """`CameraGeometry` is a class that stores information about a Cherenkov Camera that us useful for imaging algorithms and displays. It contains lists of pixel positions, areas, pixel shapes, as well as a neighbor (adjacency) list and matrix for each pixel. In general the neighbor_matrix attribute should be used in any algorithm needing pixel neighbors, since it is much faster. See for example `ctapipe.image.tailcuts_clean` The class is intended to be generic, and work with any Cherenkov Camera geometry, including those that have square vs hexagonal pixels, gaps between pixels, etc. Parameters ---------- self : type description name : str Camera name (e.g. NectarCam, LSTCam, ...) pix_id : array(int) pixels id numbers pix_x : array with units position of each pixel (x-coordinate) pix_y : array with units position of each pixel (y-coordinate) pix_area : array(float) surface area of each pixel, if None will be calculated neighbors : list(arrays) adjacency list for each pixel pix_type : string either 'rectangular' or 'hexagonal' pix_rotation : value convertable to an `astropy.coordinates.Angle` rotation angle with unit (e.g. 12 * u.deg), or "12d" cam_rotation : overall camera rotation with units """ CURRENT_TAB_VERSION = "2.0" SUPPORTED_TAB_VERSIONS = {"1.0", "1", "1.1", "2.0"} def __init__( self, name, pix_id, pix_x, pix_y, pix_area, pix_type, pix_rotation="0d", cam_rotation="0d", neighbors=None, apply_derotation=True, frame=None, ): if pix_x.ndim != 1 or pix_y.ndim != 1: raise ValueError( f"Pixel coordinates must be 1 dimensional, got {pix_x.ndim}" ) assert len(pix_x) == len(pix_y), "pix_x and pix_y must have same length" if isinstance(pix_type, str): pix_type = PixelShape.from_string(pix_type) elif not isinstance(pix_type, PixelShape): raise TypeError( f"pix_type most be a PixelShape or the name of a PixelShape, got {pix_type}" ) self.n_pixels = len(pix_x) = name self.pix_id = pix_id self.pix_x = pix_x self.pix_y = pix_y self.pix_area = pix_area self.pix_type = pix_type if not isinstance(pix_rotation, Angle): pix_rotation = Angle(pix_rotation) if not isinstance(cam_rotation, Angle): cam_rotation = Angle(cam_rotation) self.pix_rotation = pix_rotation self.cam_rotation = cam_rotation self._neighbors = neighbors self.frame = frame if neighbors is not None: if isinstance(neighbors, list): lil = lil_matrix((self.n_pixels, self.n_pixels), dtype=bool) for pix_id, neighbors in enumerate(neighbors): lil[pix_id, neighbors] = True self._neighbors = lil.tocsr() else: self._neighbors = csr_matrix(neighbors) if apply_derotation: self.rotate(self.cam_rotation) # cache border pixel mask per instance self._border_cache = {} def __eq__(self, other): if not isinstance(other, CameraGeometry): return NotImplemented if != return False if self.n_pixels != other.n_pixels: return False if self.pix_type != other.pix_type: return False if not u.isclose(self.pix_rotation, other.pix_rotation): return False return all( [u.allclose(self.pix_x, other.pix_x), u.allclose(self.pix_y, other.pix_y)] )
[docs] def guess_radius(self): """ Guess the camera radius as mean distance of the border pixels from the center pixel """ border = self.get_border_pixel_mask() cx = self.pix_x.mean() cy = self.pix_y.mean() return np.sqrt( (self.pix_x[border] - cx) ** 2 + (self.pix_y[border] - cy) ** 2 ).mean()
[docs] def transform_to(self, frame: BaseCoordinateFrame): """Transform the pixel coordinates stored in this geometry and the pixel and camera rotations to another camera coordinate frame. Note that ``geom.frame`` must contain all the necessary attributes needed to transform into the requested frame, i.e. if going from `~ctapipe.coordinates.CameraFrame` to `~ctapipe.coordinates.TelescopeFrame`, it should contain the correct data in the ``focal_length`` attribute. Parameters ---------- frame: ctapipe.coordinates.CameraFrame The coordinate frame to transform to. Returns ------- CameraGeometry: new instance in the requested Frame """ if self.frame is None: self.frame = CameraFrame() # we have to derotate, transformations only provide sensible # results after derotation from the camera coordinate system with # custom angle into a not-rotate frame if self.cam_rotation.value != 0: cam = deepcopy(self) cam.rotate(self.cam_rotation) else: cam = self coord = SkyCoord(cam.pix_x, cam.pix_y, frame=cam.frame) trans = coord.transform_to(frame) # also transform the origin and unit vectors, # needed to account for translation, rotation / mirroring, scale width = cam.pixel_width[0].to_value(cam.pix_x.unit) points = SkyCoord( [0, width, 0], [0, 0, width], unit=cam.pix_x.unit, frame=cam.frame ) points_trans = points.transform_to(frame) x_name, y_name = list(cam.frame.get_representation_component_names().keys()) points_x = getattr(points, x_name) points_y = getattr(points, y_name) trans_x_name, trans_y_name = list( frame.get_representation_component_names().keys() ) points_trans_x = getattr(points_trans, trans_x_name) points_trans_y = getattr(points_trans, trans_y_name) matrix = np.vstack([points_trans_x[1:].value, points_trans_y[1:].value]) is_mirrored = np.linalg.det(matrix) < 0 rot = np.arctan2( points_trans_y[1] - points_trans_y[0], points_trans_y[2] - points_trans_y[0] ) if is_mirrored: cam_rotation = -cam.cam_rotation pix_rotation = rot - cam.pix_rotation else: cam_rotation = cam.cam_rotation pix_rotation = cam.pix_rotation - rot distance_before = _distance( points_x[1], points_y[1], points_x[2], points_y[2], ) distance_after = _distance( points_trans_x[1], points_trans_y[1], points_trans_x[2], points_trans_y[2], ) scale = distance_after / distance_before trans_x = getattr(trans, trans_x_name) trans_y = getattr(trans, trans_y_name) pix_area = (cam.pix_area * scale**2).to(trans_x.unit**2) return CameraGeometry(, pix_id=cam.pix_id, pix_x=trans_x, pix_y=trans_y, pix_area=pix_area, pix_type=cam.pix_type, pix_rotation=pix_rotation, cam_rotation=cam_rotation, neighbors=cam._neighbors, apply_derotation=False, frame=frame, )
def __hash__(self): return hash( (, round(self.pix_x[0].value, 3), round(self.pix_y[0].value, 3), self.pix_type, round(self.pix_rotation.deg, 3), ) ) def __len__(self): return self.n_pixels def __getitem__(self, slice_): return CameraGeometry( name=" ".join([, " sliced"]), pix_id=self.pix_id[slice_], pix_x=self.pix_x[slice_], pix_y=self.pix_y[slice_], pix_area=self.pix_area[slice_], pix_type=self.pix_type, pix_rotation=self.pix_rotation, cam_rotation=self.cam_rotation, neighbors=None, apply_derotation=False, ) @lazyproperty def pixel_width(self): """ in-circle diameter for hexagons, edge width for square pixels, diameter for circles. This is calculated from the pixel area. """ if self.pix_type == PixelShape.HEXAGON: width = 2 * np.sqrt(self.pix_area / (2 * np.sqrt(3))) elif self.pix_type == PixelShape.SQUARE: width = np.sqrt(self.pix_area) elif self.pix_type == PixelShape.CIRCLE: width = 2 * np.sqrt(self.pix_area / np.pi) else: raise NotImplementedError( f"Cannot calculate pixel width for type {self.pix_type!r}" ) return width
[docs] @staticmethod def guess_pixel_width(pix_x, pix_y): """ Calculate pixel diameter by looking at the minimum distance between pixels Note this will not work on cameras with varying pixel sizes or gaps Returns ------- in-circle diameter for hexagons, edge width for square pixels """ return np.min( np.sqrt((pix_x[1:] - pix_x[0]) ** 2 + (pix_y[1:] - pix_y[0]) ** 2) )
@lazyproperty def _pixel_circumradius(self): """pixel circumference radius/radii based on pixel area and layout""" if self.pix_type == PixelShape.HEXAGON: circum_rad = self.pixel_width / np.sqrt(3) elif self.pix_type == PixelShape.SQUARE: circum_rad = np.sqrt(self.pix_area / 2.0) elif self.pix_type == PixelShape.CIRCLE: circum_rad = self.pixel_width / 2 else: raise NotImplementedError( "Cannot calculate pixel circumradius for type {self.pix_type!r}" ) return circum_rad @lazyproperty def _kdtree(self): """ Pre-calculated kdtree of all pixel centers inside camera Returns ------- kdtree """ pixel_centers = np.column_stack([self.pix_x.value, self.pix_y.value]) return cKDTree(pixel_centers) @lazyproperty def _all_pixel_areas_equal(self): """ Pre-calculated kdtree of all pixel centers inside camera Returns ------- True if all pixels are of equal size, False otherwise """ return ~np.any(~np.isclose(self.pix_area.value, self.pix_area[0].value), axis=0)
[docs] def image_index_to_cartesian_index(self, pixel_index): """ Convert pixel index in the 1d image representation to row and col """ rows, cols = self._pixel_positions_2d return rows[pixel_index], cols[pixel_index]
[docs] def cartesian_index_to_image_index(self, row, col): """ Convert cartesian index (row, col) to pixel index in 1d representation. """ return self._pixel_indices_cartesian[row, col]
@lazyproperty def _pixel_indices_cartesian(self): img = np.arange(self.n_pixels) img2d = self.image_to_cartesian_representation(img) invalid = np.iinfo(np.int32).min img2d = np.nan_to_num(img2d, nan=invalid).astype(np.int32) return img2d @lazyproperty def _pixel_positions_2d(self): """ Pixel positions on the orthogonal grid of the 2d image. In order for hexagonal pixels to behave as if they were square, the grid has to be distorted. Namely, slanting and stretching of the 1d pixel positions to align them nicely. Beware, that this means the pixel geometries on this grid to not match the one in the geometry. Returns ------- (rows, columns) of each pixel if transformed onto an orthogonal grid """ if self.pix_type in {PixelShape.HEXAGON, PixelShape.CIRCLE}: # cam rotation should be 0 unless the derotation is turned off in the init rot_x, rot_y = unskew_hex_pixel_grid( self.pix_x, self.pix_y, cam_angle=30 * u.deg - self.pix_rotation - self.cam_rotation, ) x_edges, y_edges, _ = get_orthogonal_grid_edges( rot_x.to_value(u.m), rot_y.to_value(u.m) ) square_mask = np.histogramdd( [rot_x.to_value(u.m), rot_y.to_value(u.m)], bins=(x_edges, y_edges) )[0].astype(bool) hex_to_rect_map = np.histogramdd( [rot_x.to_value(u.m), rot_y.to_value(u.m)], bins=(x_edges, y_edges), weights=np.arange(len(self.pix_y)), )[0].astype(int) hex_to_rect_map[~square_mask] = -1 rows_2d = np.zeros(hex_to_rect_map.shape) rows_2d.T[:] = np.arange(hex_to_rect_map.shape[0]) rows_1d = np.zeros(self.pix_x.shape, dtype=np.int32) rows_1d[hex_to_rect_map[..., square_mask]] = np.squeeze( np.rollaxis(np.atleast_3d(rows_2d), 2, 0) )[..., square_mask] cols_2d = np.zeros(hex_to_rect_map.shape) cols_2d[:] = np.arange(hex_to_rect_map.shape[1]) cols_1d = np.zeros(self.pix_x.shape, dtype=np.int32) cols_1d[hex_to_rect_map[..., square_mask]] = np.squeeze( np.rollaxis(np.atleast_3d(cols_2d), 2, 0) )[..., square_mask] pixel_row = rows_1d pixel_column = cols_1d # flip image so that imshow looks like original camera display pixel_row = pixel_row.max() - pixel_row pixel_column = pixel_column.max() - pixel_column elif self.pix_type is PixelShape.SQUARE: pixel_row = get_orthogonal_grid_indices(self.pix_y, np.sqrt(self.pix_area)) pixel_column = get_orthogonal_grid_indices( self.pix_x, np.sqrt(self.pix_area) ) # flip image so that imshow looks like original camera display pixel_row = pixel_row.max() - pixel_row else: raise ValueError(f"Unsupported pixel shape {self.pix_type}") return pixel_row, pixel_column
[docs] def image_to_cartesian_representation(self, image): """ Create a 2D-image from a given flat image or multiple flat images. In the case of hexagonal pixels, the resulting image is skewed to match a rectangular grid. Parameters ---------- image: np.ndarray One or multiple images of shape (n_images, n_pixels) or (n_pixels) for a single image. Returns ------- image_2s: np.ndarray The transformed image of shape (n_images, n_rows, n_cols). For a single image the leading dimension is omitted. """ rows, cols = self._pixel_positions_2d image = np.atleast_2d(image) # this allows for multiple images at once image_2d = np.full((image.shape[0], rows.max() + 1, cols.max() + 1), np.nan) image_2d[:, rows, cols] = image return np.squeeze(image_2d) # removes the extra dimension for single images
[docs] def image_from_cartesian_representation(self, image_2d): """ Create a 1D-array from a given 2D image. Parameters ---------- image_2d: np.ndarray 2D image created by the `image_to_cartesian_representation` function of the same geometry. shape is expected to be: (n_images, n_rows, n_cols) or (n_rows, n_cols) for a single image. Returns ------- 1d array The image in the 1D format, which has shape (n_images, n_pixels). For single images the leading dimension is omitted. """ rows, cols = self._pixel_positions_2d # np.atleast3d would introduce the extra dimension at the end, which leads # to a different shape compared to a multi image array if image_2d.ndim == 2: image_2d = image_2d[np.newaxis, :] image_flat = np.zeros((image_2d.shape[0], rows.shape[0]), dtype=image_2d.dtype) image_flat[:] = image_2d[:, rows, cols] image_1d = image_flat return np.squeeze(image_1d)
[docs] @classmethod def from_name(cls, name="NectarCam", version=None): """ Construct a CameraGeometry using the name of the camera and array. This expects that there is a resource accessible via `~ctapipe.utils.get_table_dataset` called ``"[array]-[camera].camgeom.fits.gz"`` or ``"[array]-[camera]-[version].camgeom.fits.gz"`` Parameters ---------- name : str Camera name (e.g. NectarCam, LSTCam, ...) version : camera version id Returns ------- new CameraGeometry """ if version is None: verstr = "" else: verstr = f"-{version:03d}" tabname = "{name}{verstr}.camgeom".format(name=name, verstr=verstr) table = get_table_dataset(tabname, role="") return CameraGeometry.from_table(table)
[docs] def to_table(self): """convert this to an `astropy.table.Table`""" # currently the neighbor list is not supported, since # var-length arrays are not supported by astropy.table.Table t = Table( [self.pix_id, self.pix_x, self.pix_y, self.pix_area], names=["pix_id", "pix_x", "pix_y", "pix_area"], meta=dict( PIX_TYPE=self.pix_type.value, TAB_TYPE="ctapipe.instrument.CameraGeometry", TAB_VER=self.CURRENT_TAB_VERSION,, PIX_ROT=self.pix_rotation.deg, CAM_ROT=self.cam_rotation.deg, ), ) # clear `info` member from quantities set by table creation # which impacts indexing performance because it is deepcopied # in Quantity.__getitem__, see for q in (self.pix_id, self.pix_x, self.pix_y, self.pix_area): if hasattr(q, "__dict__"): if "info" in q.__dict__: del q.__dict__["info"] return t
[docs] @classmethod def from_table(cls, url_or_table, **kwargs): """ Load a CameraGeometry from an `astropy.table.Table` instance or a file that is readable by `` Parameters ---------- url_or_table: string or astropy.table.Table either input filename/url or a Table instance kwargs: extra keyword arguments extra arguments passed to ``, depending on file type (e.g. format, hdu, path) """ tab = url_or_table if not isinstance(url_or_table, Table): tab =, **kwargs) version = tab.meta.get("TAB_VER") if version not in cls.SUPPORTED_TAB_VERSIONS: raise IOError(f"Unsupported camera geometry table version: {version}") return cls( name=tab.meta.get("CAM_ID", "Unknown"), pix_id=tab["pix_id"], pix_x=tab["pix_x"].quantity, pix_y=tab["pix_y"].quantity, pix_area=tab["pix_area"].quantity, pix_type=tab.meta["PIX_TYPE"], pix_rotation=Angle(tab.meta["PIX_ROT"], u.deg), cam_rotation=Angle(tab.meta["CAM_ROT"], u.deg), )
def __repr__(self): return ( "CameraGeometry(name='{name}', pix_type={pix_type}, " "npix={npix}, cam_rot={camrot:.3f}, pix_rot={pixrot:.3f}, frame={frame})" ).format(, pix_type=self.pix_type, npix=len(self.pix_id), pixrot=self.pix_rotation, camrot=self.cam_rotation, frame=self.frame, ) def __str__(self): return @lazyproperty def neighbors(self): """A list of the neighbors pixel_ids for each pixel""" return [np.where(r)[0].tolist() for r in self.neighbor_matrix] @lazyproperty def neighbor_matrix(self): return self.neighbor_matrix_sparse.A @lazyproperty def max_neighbors(self): return self.neighbor_matrix_sparse.sum(axis=1).max() @lazyproperty def neighbor_matrix_sparse(self): if self._neighbors is not None: return self._neighbors else: return self.calc_pixel_neighbors(diagonal=False)
[docs] def calc_pixel_neighbors(self, diagonal=False): """ Calculate the neighbors of pixels using a kdtree for nearest neighbor lookup. Parameters ---------- diagonal: bool If rectangular geometry, also add diagonal neighbors """ # assume circle pixels are also on a hex grid if self.pix_type in (PixelShape.HEXAGON, PixelShape.CIRCLE): max_neighbors = 6 # on a hexgrid, the closest pixel in the second circle is # the diameter of the hexagon plus the inradius away # in units of the diameter, this is 1 + np.sqrt(3) / 4 = 1.433 radius = 1.4 norm = 2 # use L2 norm for hex else: # if diagonal should count as neighbor, we # need to find at most 8 neighbors with a max L2 distance # < than 2 * the pixel size, else 4 neigbors with max L1 distance # < 2 pixel size. We take a conservative 1.5 here, # because that worked on the PROD4 CHEC camera that has # irregular pixel positions. if diagonal: max_neighbors = 8 norm = 2 radius = 1.95 else: max_neighbors = 4 radius = 1.5 norm = 1 distances, neighbor_candidates = self._kdtree.query(, k=max_neighbors + 1, p=norm ) # remove self reference distances = distances[:, 1:] neighbor_candidates = neighbor_candidates[:, 1:] min_distance = np.min(distances, axis=1)[:, np.newaxis] inside_max_distance = distances < (radius * min_distance) pixels, neigbor_index = np.nonzero(inside_max_distance) neighbors = neighbor_candidates[pixels, neigbor_index] data = np.ones(len(pixels), dtype=bool) neighbor_matrix = csr_matrix((data, (pixels, neighbors))) # filter annoying deprecation warning from within scipy # scipy still uses np.matrix in scipy.sparse, but we do not # explicitly use any feature of np.matrix, so we can ignore this here with warnings.catch_warnings(): warnings.filterwarnings("ignore", category=PendingDeprecationWarning) if (neighbor_matrix.T != neighbor_matrix).sum() > 0: warnings.warn( "Neighbor matrix is not symmetric. Is camera geometry irregular?" ) return neighbor_matrix
@lazyproperty def pixel_moment_matrix(self): """ Pre-calculated matrix needed for higher-order moment calculation, up to 4th order. Note this is *not* recalculated if the CameraGeometry is modified. this matrix M can be multiplied by an image and normalized by the sum to get the moments: .. code-block:: python3 M = geom.pixel_moment_matrix() moms = (M @ image)/image.sum() Returns ------- array: x, y, x**2, x*y, y^2, x^3, x^2*y,x*y^2, y^3, x^4, x^3*y, x^2*y2, x*y^3, y^4 """ x = self.pix_x.value y = self.pix_y.value return np.row_stack( [ x, y, x**2, x * y, y**2, x**3, x**2 * y, x * y**2, y**3, x**4, x**3 * y, x**2 * y**2, x * y**3, y**4, ] )
[docs] def rotate(self, angle): """rotate the camera coordinates about the center of the camera by specified angle. Modifies the CameraGeometry in-place (so after this is called, the pix_x and pix_y arrays are rotated. Notes ----- This is intended only to correct simulated data that are rotated by a fixed angle. For the more general case of correction for camera pointing errors (rotations, translations, skews, etc), you should use a true coordinate transformation defined in `ctapipe.coordinates`. Parameters ---------- angle: value convertable to an `astropy.coordinates.Angle` rotation angle with unit (e.g. 12 * u.deg), or "12d" """ angle = Angle(angle) rotmat = rotation_matrix_2d(angle) rotated =, [self.pix_x.value, self.pix_y.value]) self.pix_x = rotated[0] * self.pix_x.unit self.pix_y = rotated[1] * self.pix_x.unit # do not use -=, copy is intentional here self.pix_rotation = self.pix_rotation - angle self.cam_rotation = Angle(0, unit=u.deg)
[docs] def info(self, printer=print): """print detailed info about this camera""" printer(f'CameraGeometry: "{self}"') printer(" - num-pixels: {}".format(len(self.pix_id))) printer(f" - pixel-type: {self.pix_type}") printer(" - sensitive-area: {}".format(self.pix_area.sum())) printer(f" - pix-rotation: {self.pix_rotation}") printer(f" - cam-rotation: {self.cam_rotation}")
[docs] @classmethod def make_rectangular( cls, npix_x=40, npix_y=40, range_x=(-0.5, 0.5), range_y=(-0.5, 0.5) ): """Generate a simple camera with 2D rectangular geometry. Used for testing. Parameters ---------- npix_x : int number of pixels in X-dimension npix_y : int number of pixels in Y-dimension range_x : (float,float) min and max of x pixel coordinates in meters range_y : (float,float) min and max of y pixel coordinates in meters Returns ------- CameraGeometry object """ bx = np.linspace(range_x[0], range_x[1], npix_x) by = np.linspace(range_y[0], range_y[1], npix_y) xx, yy = np.meshgrid(bx, by) xx = xx.ravel() * u.m yy = yy.ravel() * u.m ids = np.arange(npix_x * npix_y) rr = np.ones_like(xx).value * (xx[1] - xx[0]) / 2.0 return cls( name="RectangularCamera", pix_id=ids, pix_x=xx, pix_y=yy, pix_area=(2 * rr) ** 2, neighbors=None, pix_type=PixelShape.SQUARE, )
[docs] def get_border_pixel_mask(self, width=1): """ Get a mask for pixels at the border of the camera of arbitrary width Parameters ---------- width: int The width of the border in pixels Returns ------- mask: array A boolean mask, True if pixel is in the border of the specified width """ if width in self._border_cache: return self._border_cache[width] # filter annoying deprecation warning from within scipy # scipy still uses np.matrix in scipy.sparse, but we do not # explicitly use any feature of np.matrix, so we can ignore this here with warnings.catch_warnings(): warnings.filterwarnings("ignore", category=PendingDeprecationWarning) if width == 1: n_neighbors = self.neighbor_matrix_sparse.sum(axis=1).A1 max_neighbors = n_neighbors.max() mask = n_neighbors < max_neighbors else: n = self.neighbor_matrix mask = (n & self.get_border_pixel_mask(width - 1)).any(axis=1) self._border_cache[width] = mask return mask
[docs] def position_to_pix_index(self, x, y): """ Return the index of a camera pixel which contains a given position (x,y) in the camera frame. The (x,y) coordinates can be arrays (of equal length), for which the methods returns an array of pixel ids. A warning is raised if the position falls outside the camera. Parameters ---------- x: astropy.units.Quantity (distance) of horizontal position(s) in the camera frame y: astropy.units.Quantity (distance) of vertical position(s) in the camera frame Returns ------- pix_indices: Pixel index or array of pixel indices. Returns -1 if position falls outside camera """ if not self._all_pixel_areas_equal: logger.warning( " Method not implemented for cameras with varying pixel sizes" ) unit = x.unit points_searched = np.dstack([x.to_value(unit), y.to_value(unit)]) circum_rad = self._pixel_circumradius[0].to_value(unit) kdtree = self._kdtree dist, pix_indices = kdtree.query( points_searched, distance_upper_bound=circum_rad ) del dist pix_indices = pix_indices.flatten() # 1. Mark all points outside pixel circumeference as lying outside camera pix_indices[pix_indices == self.n_pixels] = -1 # 2. Accurate check for the remaing cases (within circumference, but still outside # camera). It is first checked if any border pixel numbers are returned. # If not, everything is fine. If yes, the distance of the given position to the # the given position to the closest pixel center is translated to the distance to # the center of a non-border pixel', pos -> pos', and it is checked whether pos' # still lies within pixel'. If not, pos lies outside the camera. This approach # does not need to know the particular pixel shape, but as the kdtree itself, # presumes all camera pixels being of equal size. border_mask = self.get_border_pixel_mask() # get all pixels at camera border: borderpix_indices = np.where(border_mask)[0] borderpix_indices_in_list = np.intersect1d(borderpix_indices, pix_indices) if borderpix_indices_in_list.any(): # Get some pixel not at the border: insidepix_index = np.where(~border_mask)[0][0] # Check in detail whether location is in border pixel or outside camera: for borderpix_index in borderpix_indices_in_list: index = np.where(pix_indices == borderpix_index)[0][0] # compare with inside pixel: xprime = ( points_searched[0][index, 0] - self.pix_x[borderpix_index].to_value(unit) + self.pix_x[insidepix_index].to_value(unit) ) yprime = ( points_searched[0][index, 1] - self.pix_y[borderpix_index].to_value(unit) + self.pix_y[insidepix_index].to_value(unit) ) dist_check, index_check = kdtree.query( [xprime, yprime], distance_upper_bound=circum_rad ) del dist_check if index_check != insidepix_index: pix_indices[index] = -1 # print warning: for index in np.where(pix_indices == -1)[0]: logger.warning( " Coordinate ({} m, {} m) lies outside camera".format( points_searched[0][index, 0], points_searched[0][index, 1] ) ) return pix_indices if len(pix_indices) > 1 else pix_indices[0]
[docs] @staticmethod def simtel_shape_to_type(pixel_shape): try: shape, rotation = SIMTEL_PIXEL_SHAPES[pixel_shape] # make sure we don't introduce a mutable global state return shape, rotation.copy() except KeyError: raise ValueError(f"Unknown pixel_shape {pixel_shape}") from None
[docs]class UnknownPixelShapeWarning(UserWarning): pass